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2nd International congress on Nosocomial and Healthcare Associated Infections, will be organized around the theme “Exploring the Challenges and Innovations in Outbreak Prevention and Control”
Nosocomialinfections 2018 is comprised of keynote and speakers sessions on latest cutting edge research designed to offer comprehensive global discussions that address current issues in Nosocomialinfections 2018
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A nosocomial infection is contracted because of an infection or toxin that exists in a certain location, such as a hospital. Nosocomial Infections are one of the major complications for health care professionals to tackle. Every day they results in prolonged hospital stays, long-term disability, and increased resistance of microbes to antimicrobials, additional costs for healthcare systems, high costs for patients and their family, and unnecessary deaths.
Healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) refer to infections associated with the delivery of healthcare in hospitals, long-term care facilities, ambulatory settings, home care and other settings. These unanticipated infections that develop during the course of medical or surgical treatment may result in significant patient illnesses and deaths (morbidity and mortality); prolong the duration of hospital stays; and necessitate additional diagnostic and therapeutic interventions, which generate added costs.
A surgical site infection is an infection that occurs after surgery in the part of the body where the surgery took place. Surgical site infections can sometimes be superficial infections involving the skin only. Other surgical site infections are more serious and can involve tissues under the skin, organs, or implanted material. The causative pathogens depend on the type of surgery; the most commonly isolated organisms are Staphylococcus aureus, coagulase-negative staphylococci, Enterococcus spp. and Escherichia coli.
A urinary tract infection (UTI) is an infection involving any part of the urinary system, including urethra, bladder, ureters, and kidney. UTIs are the most common type of healthcare-associated infection. Among UTIs acquired in the hospital, approximately 75% are associated with a urinary catheter, which is a tube inserted into the bladder through the urethra to drain urine.
Hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) and ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) are important causes of morbidity and mortality, with mortality rates approaching 62%. HAP and VAP are the second most common cause of nosocomial infection overall, but are the most common cause documented in the intensive care unit setting. In addition, HAP and VAP produce the highest mortality associated with nosocomial infection.
Blood Infections or Bacteraemia or Sepsis occurs when a bacterial infection occur somewhere else in the body such as in the lungs or skin which enters the blood stream. This is dangerous because bacteria and their toxins can be transported through the bloodstream to the entire body.
Effective infection prevention and control is central of providing high quality health care for patients and a safe working environment for those that work in healthcare settings. It is important to minimize the risk of spread of infection to patients and staff in hospital by implementing good infection control programme.
Medical devices are responsible for a large portion of Nosocomial infections, particularly in critically ill patients. Device associated infections can cause major medical and economic sequelae. Bacterial colonization and biofilm formation around the indwelling device can be a prelude to both infection and malfunction of the device.
An emerging infectious disease (EID) is an infectious disease whose incidence has increased in the past 20 years and could increase in the near future. some of the infectious diseases which can be commonly seen in the hospitals are Norovirus, Mycobacterium abscessus, Klebsiella, Influenza , Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Vancomycin-resistant Enterococci, Tuberculosis, Vancomycin-intermediate or Vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus aureus.
Immunization is a highly effective public health measure that reduces the incidence of infectious diseases, yet there has been relatively little effort toward the development of vaccines for nosocomial infections. Many nosocomial infections originate on mucosal surfaces (e.g., respiratory or gastrointestinal mucosa). As patients who are hospitalized once are more likely to be hospitalized again, a prime-boost immunization strategy, whereby a priming dose of vaccine for a nosocomial infection is administered mucosally
Antimicrobial/ Antibiotic/ Antibiotic resistance is rising to dangerously high levels in all parts of the world. New resistance mechanisms are emerging and spreading globally, threatening our ability to treat common infectious diseases. Antibiotic resistance occurs when an antibiotic has lost its ability to effectively control or kill bacterial growth; in other words, the bacteria are "resistant" and continue to multiply in the presence of therapeutic levels of an antibiotic.
Antibiotics are used to treat or prevent some types of bacterial infection. They work by killing bacteria or preventing them from reproducing and spreading. They are often unnecessarily prescribed for viral infections, against which they have no effect. Not only antibiotics, other antivirals and antimicrobials are losing their effectiveness due to their irrational use and causing antimicrobial resistance.
Biological agents, including microorganisms and toxins produced by living organisms, can cause health problems in workers. Influenza is an example of a biohazard which affects a broad population of workers. Occupational illness results from exposure in a workplace to a physical, chemical or biological agent to the extent that the normal physiological mechanisms are affected and the health of the worker is impaired.
Pharmaceutical Microbiology is an applied branch of Microbiology. It involves the study of microorganisms associated with the manufacture of pharmaceuticals. pharmaceutical microbiology include the research and development of anti-infective agents, the use of microorganisms to detect mutagenic and carcinogenic activity in prospective drugs, and the use of microorganisms in the manufacture of pharmaceutical products.
Nosocomial infections are a major challenge for patient safety. Empirical antibiotic therapy should be based on thorough clinical evaluation and local epidemiological data on potential pathogens and susceptibility to antibiotics. The chosen therapy must be effective, limit the toxicity and be the narrowest spectrum possible. The choice of parenteral, oral or topical antibiotic formulations is made on the basis of clinical presentation (site and severity of infection).
Pulmonary infections are common and are caused by a wide range of organisms. Micro-organisms responsible may enter the lung by three potential routes:
via the tracheobronchial tree : most commonly due to inhalation of droplets of secretions from another infected human
environmental exposure e.g. fungal spores
via the pulmonary vasculature
direct injection e.g. intravenous drug use
secondary seeding from distant infection e.g. infective bacterial endocarditis
via direct spread from infection in the mediastinum, chest wall, or upper abdomen
pediatric infections are recurring or persistent disease caused by an infectious agent such as bacteria, a fungus, a parasite, or other rare infection, which are harmful and lethal to child health.